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Temel Linux Komutları

Bu yazıda yeni başlayan arkadaşlara kolaylık olması açısından, linux kullanan herkesin bilmesi gereken temel linux komutlarını paylaşıyorum. Böylelikle yeni başlayan arkadaşlar bu komutları öğrenerek linux dünyasına giriş yapabilir. Aşağıdaki listeye eklenmesi gereken komut var ise yorum olarak belirtirseniz "Ek komutlar" bölümüne ekleyebiliriz.

Temel Linux Sistem Komutları

id

Programı kimin kullandığını gösterir.
[email protected]:~# id uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root) [email protected]:~#

uname -a

Kernel ismi, hostname, kernel sürümü, kernel versiyonu gibi bilgileri verir.
[email protected]:~# uname -a Linux debian 4.9.0-debian3-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 4.9.18-1debian1 (2017-04-04) i686 GNU/Linux [email protected]:~#

lsb_release -a

Yüklenen linux'ün detaylarını gösterir.
[email protected]:~# lsb_release -a No LSB modules are available. Distributor ID: debian Description: debian GNU/Linux Rolling Release: debian-rolling Codename: debian-rolling [email protected]:~#

Temel Linux Network Komutları

ifconfig

Network bilgisini ayrıntılarıyla gösterir.
[email protected]:~# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:29:9c:c9:b3 inet addr:192.168.1.23 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:ff9b:c9a3/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:292216 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:135628 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:431730275 (411.7 MiB) TX bytes:7398306 (7.0 MiB) Interrupt:19 Base address:0x2000 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1 RX packets:26 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:26 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:1648 (1.6 KiB) TX bytes:1648 (1.6 KiB) [email protected]:~#

route -n

Route tablosunu gösterir.
[email protected]:~# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.2 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 [email protected]:~#

cat /etc/resolv.conf

DNS bilgilerini gösterir.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/resolv.conf # Generated by NetworkManager domain localdomain search localdomain nameserver 192.168.1.2 [email protected]:~#

cat /etc/network/interfaces

Network aygıtları ayarlarını gösterir.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces # This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5). # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback [email protected]:~#

cat /etc/hosts

Host sorgularındaki statik değerleri gösterir.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/hosts 127.0.0.1 localhost 127.0.1.1 debian-offsec # The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts ::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6-allrouters [email protected]:~#

Donanım ile ilgili temel komutlar

lspci

Tüm PCI aygıtları (ör: iç donanımı) listeler.
[email protected]:~# lspci 00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 440BX/ZX/DX - 82443BX/ZX/DX Host bridge (rev 01) 00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 440BX/ZX/DX - 82443BX/ZX/DX AGP bridge (rev 01) 00:07.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ISA (rev 08) 00:07.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 IDE (rev 01) 00:07.3 Bridge: Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI (rev 08) 00:07.7 System peripheral: VMware Virtual Machine Communication Interface (rev 10) 00:0f.0 VGA compatible controller: VMware SVGA II Adapter 00:10.0 SCSI storage controller: LSI Logic / Symbios Logic 53c1030 PCI-X Fusion-MPT Dual Ultra320 SCSI (rev 01) 02:00.0 USB controller: VMware USB1.1 UHCI Controller 02:01.0 Ethernet controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] 79c970 [PCnet32 LANCE] (rev 10) 02:02.0 Multimedia audio controller: Ensoniq ES1371 [AudioPCI-97] (rev 02) 02:03.0 USB controller: VMware USB2 EHCI Controller 02:05.0 Ethernet controller: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] 79c970 [PCnet32 LANCE] (rev 10) [email protected]:~#

lsusb

Tüm usb cihazlarını listeler
[email protected]:~# lsusb Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0e0f:0002 VMware, Inc. Virtual USB Hub Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0e0f:0003 VMware, Inc. Virtual Mouse Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub [email protected]:~#

dmesg

Kernel bufferı (yani kernel kayıtlarını) listeler. Bu komut büyük bir sonuç döndürebilir o yüzden grep komutu ile kullanılması daha iyi olur.
[email protected]:~# dmesg [ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset [ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu [ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct [ 0.000000] Linux version 3.12-debian1-686-pae ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.7.2 (Debian 4.7.2-5) ) #1 SMP Debian 3.12.6-2debian1 (2014-01-06) [ 0.000000] Disabled fast string operations ...snip... [ 3.367400] EXT4-fs (sda1): re-mounted. Opts: (null) [ 3.407412] EXT4-fs (sda1): re-mounted. Opts: errors=remount-ro [ 3.499360] loop: module loaded [ 4.180582] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30. [ 4.350865] pcnet32 0000:02:01.0 eth0: link up [ 5.224520] pcnet32 0000:02:05.0 eth1: link up [ 7.826665] [drm] width 1024 [ 7.826704] [drm] height 768 [ 7.826716] [drm] bpp 32 [ 7.826771] [drm] Fifo max 0x00200000 min 0x00001000 cap 0x0000077f [ 7.843755] [drm] width 1024 [ 7.843764] [drm] height 768 [ 7.843771] [drm] bpp 32 [ 7.843827] [drm] Fifo max 0x00200000 min 0x00001000 cap 0x0000077f [ 187.769500] sda1: WRITE SAME failed. Manually zeroing. [email protected]:~#

lsmod

Linux kernel e yüklü modüllerin durumunu gösterir. (Hangi sürücülerin yüklendiği gibi.)
[email protected]:~# lsmod Module Size Used by nfnetlink_log 17065 0 nfnetlink 12853 1 nfnetlink_log binfmt_misc 12733 1 loop 21962 0 dm_crypt 22008 0 hid_generic 12369 0 usbhid 39684 0 hid 80998 2 hid_generic,usbhid vmw_balloon 12502 0 psmouse 76538 0 serio_raw 12737 0 coretemp 12734 0 evdev 17172 4 parport_pc 25991 0 parport 35171 1 parport_pc processor 27662 0 battery 12949 0 ac 12588 0 thermal_sys 22960 1 processor snd_ens1371 22679 2 mptbase 68288 2 mptspi,mptscsih scsi_mod 151284 7 sg,scsi_transport_spi,libata,mptspi,sd_mod,sr_mod,mptscsih [email protected]:~#

Linux Kablosuz Ağ Komutları

airmon-ng --verbose

airmon-ng nin modifiyeli halidir. Kablosuz ağı monitor etmeye, yani izlemeye yarar.
[email protected] ~$ airmon-ng --verbose Linux debian 3.12-debian1-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3.12.6-2debian1 (2014-01-06) i686 GNU/Linux Detected VM using lscpu This appears to be a VMware Virtual Machine If your system supports VT-d, it may be possible to use PCI devices If your system does not support VT-d, you can only use USB wifi cards K indicates driver is from 3.12-debian1-686-pae V indicates driver comes directly from the vendor, almost certainly a bad thing S indicates driver comes from the staging tree, these drivers are meant for reference not actual use, BEWARE ? indicates we do not know where the driver comes from... report this X[PHY]Interface Driver[Stack]-FirmwareRev Chipset Extended Info K[phy0]wlan0 rt73usb[mac80211]-1.7 Linksys WUSB54GC v1 802.11g Adapter [Ralink RT73] [email protected] ~$

rfkill list

Kablosuz aygıtların (kablosuz internet, bluetooth gibi) durumunu görüntüler.
[email protected] ~$ rfkill list 2: phy2: Wireless LAN Soft blocked: no Hard blocked: no [email protected] ~$

iwconfig

Kablosuz internetin içeriğini gösterir.
[email protected] ~$ iwconfig wlan0 IEEE 802.11bg ESSID:off/any Mode:Managed Access Point: Not-Associated Tx-Power=20 dBm Retry long limit:7 RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:off Power Management:on [email protected] ~$

airmon-ng

Kablosuz kartları monitor moduna çevirmeye yarar.
[email protected] ~$ airmon-ng Interface Chipset Driver wlan0 Ralink 2573 USB rt73usb - [phy1] [email protected] ~$

Diğer Komutlar

apt-get -y upgrade

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